ANZ Journal of Surgery

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Wiley Online Library : ANZ Journal of Surgery
Updated: 5 hours 19 min ago

Primary salivary gland malignancies: a review of clinicopathological evolution, molecular mechanisms and management

October 6, 2017 - 09:41

Salivary gland cancers are a complex group of tumours with variations in location, type and grade, all of which influence their biological behaviour. The understanding of salivary gland pathology has evolved at the molecular level in the last decade leading to identification of distinct entities, development of improved methods of diagnosis as well as identifying therapeutic targets for selected high-grade tumours. This article focuses on these advances and their impact on the management of primary salivary gland cancers.

Study on the time taken for patients to achieve the ability to self-care their new stoma

October 6, 2017 - 09:41
Background

Stoma formation in colorectal surgery is a recognized independent cause of prolonged hospital stay. It has been shown that preoperative stoma education and siting leads to a reduction in the length of hospital stay. Despite this, the length of time to independent stoma management and the variables that affect this has not been well studied. We conducted a prospective case series to analyse this.

Methods

A total of 107 consecutive colorectal surgery patients undergoing stoma formation at two separate large metropolitan hospitals, one private funded and the other government funded, were enrolled in a prospective case series. The primary outcome evaluated was independent management of stoma at discharge from hospital. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with achieving independent stoma management at discharge.

Results

The median length of stay was 9 days (range: 4–71). In our study, 71% of patients achieved self-care at the time of discharge from hospital (76/107 patients). The median length of time taken to achieve independent management of a stoma was 7 days (interquartile range: 6–9). Factors associated with increased chance of independent management of stoma at discharge included younger age, male, preoperative siting and treatment in a public hospital.

Conclusion

Our study supports that preoperative stoma education in combination with post-operative stoma education is superior to post-operative stoma education alone. Interestingly, treatment in a private hospital is associated with a higher likelihood of failure to achieve independent stoma management at discharge. This is unexpected and not explained by our data.

Cost-effective imaging for resectability of liver lesions in colorectal cancer: an economic decision model

October 6, 2017 - 09:40
Background

This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) compared with multiphase CE computed tomography (CE-CT) scan to characterize suspected liver lesions in patients with known colorectal carcinoma.

Methods

A decision analytic model linking diagnostic accuracy to health outcomes in patients with colorectal carcinoma was constructed. The model assumed that CE-MRI has superior sensitivity and equivalent specificity to CE-CT, and patients with a colorectal liver metastasis could be eligible for curative surgery or chemotherapy and palliation. Delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis was associated with worse health outcomes (disutility). Cost-effectiveness was calculated as the incremental cost relative to the incremental benefit, the benefit was estimated using quality-adjusted life years. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the results.

Results

The clinical evidence supports increased sensitivity of CE-MRI compared with CE-CT (0.943 versus 0.768). CE-MRI was more effective and more costly than CE-CT. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated to be $40 548 per quality-adjusted life year gained. The model is most sensitive to the cost of MRI, cost of palliative treatment and the disutility associated with delayed palliative care. The results were also sensitive to the assumptions made about the clinical algorithm.

Conclusion

The results provide evidence of the potential cost-effectiveness associated with CE-MRI for the diagnosis of liver metastases in patients with identified colorectal carcinoma. CE-MRI can be recommended as cost-effective provided it replaces CE-CT and that improved diagnostic accuracy results in earlier, curative, disease management.

Comparing pathological complete response rate using oral capecitabine versus infusional 5-fluorouracil with preoperative radiotherapy in rectal cancer treatment

October 6, 2017 - 09:40
Background

Infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been the standard radiation sensitizer in patients undergoing preoperative long-course chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer in Australia. Capecitabine (Xeloda) is an oral 5-FU prodrug of comparable pharmacodynamic activity, currently preferred in place of 5-FU infusion, its established counterpart in neoadjuvant CRT for rectal cancer. The few studies quantifying pathological complete response (pCR) of Xeloda versus 5-FU have produced inconsistent results. We reviewed our own data to determine if the rates of pCR of oral capecitabine were non-inferior to intravenous 5-FU in patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT for rectal cancer.

Methods

A retrospective study was performed from a prospectively kept database. Four hundred and fifty-two patients received preoperative CRT from January 2006 to January 2016. Pelvic radiotherapy was delivered concurrently with capecitabine (n = 42) or infusional 5-FU (n = 341). The remaining received different chemotherapy regimens. Surgery was performed 6–12 weeks of CRT completion. Pathological responses were assessed using Dworak regression grading score (0–4). Clinical outcomes were evaluated in terms of local control and recurrence-free survival.

Results

The proportion of patients who had a tumour regression score of 4 (pCR) after CRT was 4/42 (9.5%) in the capecitabine group and 71/341 (20%) in the infusional 5-FU group (P = 0.082). pCR was an independent predictor for survival in this group of patients (hazard ratio: 0.002, P = 0.0001, 95% confidence interval: 0.0001–0.027).

Conclusion

The use of capecitabine as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer was associated with a reduced rate of pCR. However this difference did not achieve statistical significance.

Pancreatoduodenectomy in a public versus private teaching hospital is comparable with some minor variations

October 6, 2017 - 09:40
Background

The impact of the public and private hospital systems on major abdominal operations that are demanding on clinical resources, such as pancreatic surgery, has not been explored in an Australian setting. This study examines the perioperative outcome of patients undergoing pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) at a major public and private hospital.

Methods

Patients undergoing PD between January 2004 and October 2015 were classified based on their health insurance status and location of where the surgery was performed. Clinical variables relating to perioperative outcome were retrieved and compared using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results

Four hundred and twenty patients underwent PD of whom 232 patients (55%) were operated on in the private hospital. Overall, there was no difference in morbidity and mortality in the public versus the private hospital. However, there were variations in public versus private hospital, this included longer duration of surgery (443 min versus 372 min; P < 0.001), increased estimated blood loss (683 mL versus 506 mL; P < 0.001) and more patients requiring perioperative blood transfusion (25% versus 13%; P = 0.001). Of the 10 complications compared, post-operative bleeding was higher in the private hospital (11% versus 5%; P = 0.051) and intra-abdominal collections were more common in the public hospital (11% versus 5%; P = 0.028). Independent predictive factors for major complications were American Society of Anesthesiologists score (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91; P = 0.050), patients requiring additional visceral resection (OR = 3.36; P = 0.014) and post-operative transfusion (OR = 3.37; P < 0.001). The hospital type (public/private) was not associated with perioperative outcome.

Conclusion

Comparable perioperative outcomes were observed between patients undergoing PD in a high-volume specialized unit in both the public and private hospital systems.

25, 50 & 75 years ago

October 4, 2017 - 10:40

Hirschsprung disease

October 4, 2017 - 10:40

Medicine in small doses

October 4, 2017 - 10:40

Issue information - TOC

October 4, 2017 - 10:40