ANZ Journal of Surgery

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Syndicate content
Wiley Online Library : ANZ Journal of Surgery
Updated: 5 hours 25 min ago

25, 50 & 75 years ago

December 5, 2017 - 09:28

Prognostic significance of pre-operative inflammatory markers in resected gallbladder cancer: a systematic review

December 4, 2017 - 10:40
Background

Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) have demonstrated good prognostic value in several cancers but their role in gallbladder cancer (GBC) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to systematically review the current literature to determine their role in predicting survival outcomes in GBC.

Methods

Using a pre-specified inclusive search strategy MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases were used to identify studies describing survival in patients after GBC resection with high or low pre-operative CRP, GPS or NLR. A proforma was used to extract study author and date, number of patients, age, gender, tumour stage, use of adjuvant therapy and primary outcome data.

Results

In all, 46 studies were identified after initial screening with four studies reporting survival outcomes. All studies described a reduction in survival in patients with an elevated NLR, GPS or CRP. Three studies showed NLR to be an independent prognostic marker and one study additionally demonstrated that elevated CRP and GPS were associated with poorer survival.

Conclusions

Elevated pre-operative inflammatory markers are inversely related to survival outcomes. They are relatively inexpensive, easy measurable parameters that could aid in the decision making process involved in the management of GBC. Sub-stratification of groups utilizing inflammatory markers may help guide surgical strategy. However, these studies are retrospective and of low to moderate quality. High quality, prospective studies with well-defined inclusion criteria and outcomes are needed to guide the role of inflammatory markers in the management of GBC.

Combined treatment approach to chronic anal fissure with associated anal fistula

December 4, 2017 - 10:40
Background

Anal fistula in association with chronic anal fissure (fissure-fistula) is infrequently described. Recognizing this association and managing both components may help prevent some treatment failures seen with chronic anal fissure. This study aims to report on the outcomes of 20 consecutive patients with fissure-fistula managed with fistulotomy and injection of botulinum A toxin.

Methods

The study is a retrospective, observational study, assessing the success of symptom resolution following fistulotomy with botulinum A toxin, in patients identified as having a chronic anal fissure with associated anal fistula. The study included all patients with this condition treated with combination treatment by a single surgeon at a tertiary care hospital between January 2013 and January 2016.

Results

Twenty patients with fissure-fistula treated with fistulotomy and botulinum toxin A were identified. The median cohort age was 44 years (range 25–78), with a predominance of males (80%) and posterior fissure position (80%). The most common presenting symptoms were anal pain (70%), rectal bleeding (55%), anal discharge (35%) and anal pruritus (35%). Mean follow-up was 10.5 weeks and all patients who attended follow-up appointments reported resolution of symptoms. There were no cases of incontinence and none of the cohort required further surgical intervention for the condition.

Conclusion

Chronic anal fissure with associated anal fistula can be successfully managed with fistulotomy and injection of botulinum toxin A. Further studies would be helpful in determining if recognition and management of the fistula component in isolation with fistulotomy is as effective as fistulotomy plus botulinum A toxin.

Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: a New Zealand experience

December 4, 2017 - 10:40
Background

Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a proven alternative therapy to either radical surgery or endoscopic mucosal resection for rectal neoplasms. It has proven benefits with lower morbidity and mortality compared with total mesorectal excision, and a lower local recurrence rate when compared to endoscopic mucosal techniques.

Methods

A retrospective data collection of TEMS procedures performed through Waikato District Health Board, New Zealand, from 2010 to 2015 was conducted. Supportive follow-up data were sourced from patient records and from local centres around New Zealand.

Results

A total of 137 procedures were performed over the study period, with five being repeat procedures. Procedures were mostly performed for benign lesions (66.4%) with an overall complication rate of 15.3%, only five of which were Clavien–Dindo grade III (3.6%). Our local recurrence rate after resection of benign lesions was 5.1%.

Conclusion

Our data set demonstrates the TEMS procedure to be safe compared to radical resection (total mesorectal excision) for sessile rectal lesions. Close endoscopic follow-up is recommended, especially for close or incomplete margins. Good therapeutic results can be obtained for appropriately selected early malignant lesions. TEMS provides better oncological results than endoscopic mucosal resection or transanal excision.

Cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation: a systematic review

December 4, 2017 - 10:40
Background

The medical tourism industry, and in particular cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, is becoming an increasingly popular global phenomenon. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of medical literature and the patient risk profiles associated with cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation both locally and abroad. Data sources: OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, Cochrane Central and Proquest electronic databases.

Methods

The search was conducted through to April 2017. Studies pertaining entirely or partly to cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation were considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria included non-English articles, studies relating to non-cosmetic or non-implant breast augmentation, and studies that did not separately report on findings associated with breast augmentation abroad.

Results

We identified 17 observational studies. Common destinations included Europe, South America and South East Asia. Infectious complications were common. Wound dehiscence and aesthetic dissatisfaction also featured. Catastrophic outcomes such as sepsis, intubation and ventilation, radical bilateral mastectomy, irreversible hypoxic brain injury and death were also reported. There were expectations that home country health systems would treat complications and provide non-medically indicated revision procedures. The burden on home country health systems was evident from a public health perspective.

Conclusion

Determining the extent of cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, including outcomes and complications, will help to inform Australian patients who this seek procedure abroad. Furthermore, it will aid in better understanding the health system implications and may help to guide future research and public health interventions both locally and internationally.

Perioperative albumin ratio is associated with post-operative pancreatic fistula

December 1, 2017 - 11:21
Background

Despite improvements in surgical techniques and perioperative management, post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains a serious complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of perioperative clinical variables of patients, including albumin level, in predicting pancreatic fistula.

Methods

A total of 86 patients underwent PD for pancreas cancer between 2011 and 2017 at our institution. We prospectively investigated the relation between patient's characteristics and the incidence of clinically relevant (CR)-POPF. Perioperative albumin ratio was defined as post-operative day 1 (POD1) albumin level/preoperative albumin level.

Results

A total of 23 patients (26.7%) developed CR-POPF. At univariate analysis POPF correlated with soft pancreas (P = 0.045), low POD1 albumin (P = 0.02), POD1 and POD3 amylase levels in drainage fluid (P = 0.003 and P = 0.014, respectively) and perioperative albumin ratio (0.58 ± 0.10 versus 0.69 ± 0.12 in patients without POPF; P = 0.003). No significant correlations with POPF were demonstrated for surgical time, serum amylase levels and preoperative albumin levels. At multivariate analysis POD3 amylase level in drainage fluid and perioperative albumin ratio were the only significant independent parameters (P = 0.027 and P = 0.047, respectively).

Conclusions

Perioperative albumin ratio can predict POPF after PD.